**HEIM THEORY**

Beginning in the 1950s the German physicist Burkhard Heim began pushing the theoretical boundaries of general relativity to unify it with quantum theory. His theory, Heim Unified Quantum Field Theory (aka Heim Quantum Theory, HQT or just Heim Theory), is not just an expansion on Einstein’s general relativity but is a “superset” including general relativity and quantum mechanics which arise naturally as subsets of Heim Theory.

What sets Heim Theory a part from other theories to describe gravitation? Its approach is unique in several ways. First, it accurately predicts the mass of standard particles in physics better than any other mathematical expression yet devised. Second, experiments conducted through ARC are consistent with its predictions. Third, and most importantly, it is testable (i.e. falsifiable).

Then why has it been ignored for so long? Perhaps because it is due to Heim’s isolation. His injuries in WWII rendered him blind and without the use of his hands. He isolated himself more than many physicists due, in part, to his injuries. In addition, his use of terminology was not widely accepted and he published only in German, making a wider readership unavailable. But the theory is also controversial. Heim Theory radically predict the generation of new fundamental gravity-like interactions in nature. These new fundamental interactions would join the existing four forces of the standard model: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, weak nuclear and gravitation. It is a true “black swan” theory and is still undergoing refinement.

**ROOTS IN EINSTEIN’S WORK**

In the early 1950s, Heim began to rewrite the equations of general relativity in a quantum framework. He drew upon Einstein’s idea that the geometry of space causes gravitation. Einstein’s goal was the unification of all physical interactions based on his principle of geometrization, i.e., having a geometric structure (metric) that is responsible for all interactions. This principle is termed Einstein’s Geometrization Principle of physics, or EGP.

Heim expanded upon EGP to suggest that all of the fundamental forces of nature (gravitation, electromagnetism, strong nuclear interaction and weak nuclear interaction) emerge from adding extra dimensions to those of space and time. The four dimensions of space and time remain, but Heim proposed that with two additional dimensions the six dimensional model could account not just for the four known fundamental interactions but also new gravity-like fundamental interactions.

Heim Theory begins with the smallest indivisible unit of area – a “quanta”. The length of the sides of a quanta are equivalent to a Planck length which is 1.61625×10^−35 meters and represents the smallest distance or length that can be measured. This quanta of area, which Heim referred to in his writings as a “metron”, is thought to have varied during the early history of the universe. According to Heim Theory at some point in the early expanding universe once quanta became sufficiently small, matter “popped” into existence throughout the universe – somewhat like bubbles forming when a bottle of carbonated soda is opened. Heim Theory posits that matter didn’t form from a “big bang” so much as a “big fizz.”

**SEEKING CONFIRMATION**

Beginning in 2002 an effort began to confirm Heim Theory’s calculations for the mass of particles. Though this aspect of the theory is not directly associated with the gravitational aspects of the theory its assertions are similarly based upon the hermetry of space in determining the mass values for key particles. Heim also made mass calculations for particles which at the time had no empirical data for their masses.

For example, he calculated masses for neutrinos. At the time (1980) neutrinos were considered massless particles, yet Heim’s calculations predicted a small mass. Confirmation that his mass formula really did accurately predict the masses of particles would give weight to all of Heim Theory.

During the 80s and 90s the original Heim Theory slipped into the background of popular theory. On the rise was string theory. String theory derives from ideas presented in 1921 when mathematician Theodor Kaluza developed a five-dimensional spacetime to describe general relativity. In the late 60s and early 70s string theory had gained adherents and soon would represent the dominant theme in particle and gravity theory.

Confusion over replicating the calculations hindered confirmation efforts. In addition to being in German and using his unique notation and terminology, the original notes were also quite disorganized. In addition ,a selector rule for this part of the theory remained unfinished and attempts to clarify it were ongoing. After a programmed version of the formula was made available in 1982 the ability to replicate his results were more easily achieved. The accuracy of Heim’s mass formula calculations in correctly predicting the masses, resonances and lifespan of elementary particles was quite remarkable yet there was one aspect still left unanswered.

**CRITICISMS**

For decades there was controversy about whether these complex calculations containing terminology exclusive to Heim were actually predicting the mass of particles or whether Heim inadvertently added in values that upon completion of the calculation would result in the mass values.

In 2006 controversy arose around the mass formula and it was suggested that values were inserted by hand to achieve such accurate results. Physicist John Reed initially presented a strong criticism of this aspect of Heim Theory. Reed claimed to have found that the particle mass values were inadvertently pre-inserted into the theory back in the ’70s through use of a somewhat empirically derived set of values known as the “A matrix” used for the purpose of predicting resonance states of particles. Those insertions had remained in the 1982 programmed version of the formula as well.

After careful additional reviews, Dr. Reed withdrew his criticism in 2007 when a 1989 update without the A matrix was analyzed and found to remain accurate despite not including any inserted values. Reed noted that the particle mass predictions were not only tolerable but that when applied to 17 test particles were found with few exceptions to be highly accurate – sometimes to within six decimal points of experimental values. And this while employing only five key constants in determining particle mass.

These values for mass have been compared and verified with mass readings derived by particle accelerators. They remain by far the most accurate prediction of mass values.

**EXPANDING INTEREST**

Though key articles on Heim’s mass formula remained in their original German small cadres of interested scientists began translations of Heim’s work to clarify the formula and open his research to a wider audience. This led to the increased scrutiny of the 1982 and 1989 versions of his mass formula mentioned previously. It was also during this time that Heim began to take on formal collaborations with others. Heim and collaborator Walter Dröscher produced a book on the structures of the physical world and the non-material in 1996.

Beginning in 2001 the research group Heim-Theory was developed to expose his work to an English speaking audience by creating translations of articles and overviews of his work. In 2003 the “Research Group Heim’s Theory” published an introduction to Heim’s mass formula incorporating data from his publications in 1979, 1989 and 1998. Included were calculated values for twenty-seven particles and comparison of sixteen select particles to experimentally derived values. In 2009 the Heim-Theory wiki was established “for gathering and discussing information about the Heim Mass Formula and related topics.”

Heim Theory continues to develop, but not without qualified critics. Dr. John Reed reported in PhyForum in June 2011:

*Much of what I learned about Heim’s gravity equation came from Jim Graham’s website. Those were the papers by Anton Mueller and Bjorn Mansson that I mentioned earlier. Anton’s paper shows that Heim only derived part of the equation for the gravitational potential. He left out the contribution of the gravitational field mass outside of the observation point. Bjorn shows that including this contribution gives a result that is identical to what is obtained from general relativity. Therefore Heim’s results should only give back the GR solution which does not have a repulsive gravitational character. **Even when Heim solved the incomplete part that he derived he wrongly interpreted that solution as having a repulsive part which in fact doesn’t exist. What I found in his book was that the equation was written down incorrectly and Heim had to make an additional incorrect stipulation to make it work.*

The error Reed is referring to had already been known for many years by others employing Heim’s work as a foundation for establishing an extended theory known as **Extended Heim Theory**. The error was corrected by Heim (wrong spherical Laplacian) in the second edition of his Vol I, but Heim did not change his results.

Other issues have been reported to those continuing Heim’s work, but it is the actual idea of how to construct a poly-metric tensor that is of greatest importance. The founders of Extended Heim Theory (Jochem Hauser and Walter Dröscher) employ an eight-dimensional gauge space (*extending* Heim Theory’s poly-metric tensor) and have derived all of the formulas anew. They assume none of the calculations formerly derived by Heim. Without a doubt, the association with the flaws in Heim Theory has slowed acceptance of Extended Heim Theory.

Extended Heim Theory (shortened here to EHT) is a fresh approach to the geometrization of space and is the basis for gravity design as described in this site, but it has its beginnings in the work of Burkhard Heim.

Next Big Future chronicles John Reed’s critique of Heim Theory in language accessible to most readers.

A chronological overview of the work of Burhard Heim can be found here: http://www.engon.de/protosimplex/downloads/Heimchronology.pdf