How does Extended Heim Theory (EHT) contrast with Heim Quantum Theory? In short, EHT posits 8 dimensions including new particles that carry gravity-like fields with both attractive and repulsive characteristics. The particles can be generated by the rotation of superconductors through the mechanism of “gravitomagnetic symmetry breaking”.

In addition to Newtonian gravity, EHT proposes new attractive and repulsive forms of gravity-like fields, both much weaker than the already weak gravitational force. However, under special circumstances but still within engineering limits, these weaker fields might be amplified more than a billion billion times larger than predicted by general relativity… enough to counteract and modify gravitation locally.

The collaboration between Walter Dröscher and Jochem Hauser that led to Extended Heim Theory (EHT) began in 1980 when Heim was introduced to Dr. Walter Dröscher, a retired officer of the Austrian patent office. Like the former patent clerk Einstein, Dröscher had a penchant for physics and pushing the boundaries of accepted theory. Dröscher was to become one of Heim’s few collaborators and worked not only to translate and interpret Heim’s work but also to expand it into a more far-reaching and robust theory.

**BACKGROUNDS**

Dröscher was Senior Scientist at the Institut für Grenzgebiete der Wissenschaft, Austria and he in turn collaborated with Dr. Hauser of HPCC-Space GmbH. HPCC-Space GmbH is a research enterprise engaged in high performance computing and communications for the aerospace engineering industry.

Dr. Hauser is a physicist with several areas of expertise including plasma modeling, optimizing spacecraft propulsion and aerodynamic analysis (for ESA), computational models for fluid dynamics, and Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicle design. Educated as a physicist, he was formerly a Professor of Computer Science and Parallel Computing at the University of Applied Sciences, Braunschweig-Wolfenbuettel, Germany and also Head of the Parallel Computing Department at the Center of Logistics and Expert Systems ( CLE ), Salzgitter, Germany.

Hauser is a member of the Technical Committee of Future Flight at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Just a month prior to the award by AIAA, co-author Hauser had been elected Visiting Scholar by the Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Dept. of San Jose State University, California. It was turning out to be an excellent year for the pair of physicists.

**EARLY WRITINGS**

Dröscher reworked Heim’s original six-dimensional model convincing Heim to reinstate two dimensions previously dropped to form an eight dimensional model called “Extended Heim Quantum Theory”, or “Extended Heim Theory” or just the acronym EHT. It should be noted that in its current form EHT does not yet reach the status of a formal physical theory. Think of it as a classification scheme that encompasses all physical interactions of nature.

In an awarded 2004 paper, Dröscher and Hauser postulated that virtual electron/positron pairs interacted with the Higgs field, the mechanism by which mass is imparted in the standard model of particle physics. The electron/positron pairs are fermions. Fermions are any particles composing matter, i.e. quarks and leptons which make up more complex particles such as protons, neutrons, electrons and positrons.

In contrast to fermions, bosons are particles that carry force. They include photons (carriers of the electromagnetic force), gluons (carrier of the strong nuclear force), W and Z bosons (carriers of the weak nuclear force) and gravitons (carriers of gravity force). Together, fermions and bosons make up all of the matter and forces in the universe. Fermions are also distinguished from bosons by “spin.” Fermions have half-integer spin (1⁄2, 11⁄2, 21⁄2), while bosons have integer spin (0, 1, 2, 3).

A key to their propulsion model is that virtual electron/positron pairs couple with nearby virtual electron/positron pairs through vacuum polarization. Virtual electron and positron pairs are created and destroyed all the time in empty space known as the “vacuum” and the pairs exist for less than a billionth of a billionth of a second. When pairs do form near a negative charge in a field the negative side (virtual electron) of the pair charge is repelled and the positive side (virtual positron) of the pair is attracted leaving the vacuum “polarized.”

They proposed that coupling to virtual electron/positron pairs would generate novel particles called “gravitophotons”, particles predicted under the original Heim Theory. Under proper conditions a photon will convert into one of two types of neutral gravitophotons which subsequently decay into other **particles that generate gravity-like fields**. These fields interact with matter and the vacuum making propulsion possible. Interactions with electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum occur in other theories of gravitational propulsion as well, but the generation of new gravity-related particles is unique to Heim Theory.

Down one pathway a neutral gravitophoton will decay to a pair of gravitophotons with one being positive and the other negative. That is, one attracts and the other repels. Down a second pathway, a neutral gravitophoton will decay to an attractive graviton and a repulsive quintessence particle. Regardless of the pathway taken, no force is applied to an object unless a particle “couples” with either a fermion or a boson contained within the object.

**FIRST EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION**

In their writings Dröscher and Hauser had acknowledged the possibility of coupling to bosons rather than fermions, but typically bosons are massless and therefore would not impart a significantly strong gravitomagnetic field. Then in 2006 Dr. Martin Tajmar and collaborators announced experimental evidence that spinning superconductors can lead to the generation of gravity-like fields with parity (either attractive or repulsive). In contrast to Dröscher and Hauser, Tajmar’s team had originally theorized that their effect was due to boson coupling – not massless bosons but very massive bosons called “Cooper pairs.”

Cooper pairs are classified in the particle world as bosons, which as we recall include massless photons, gluons and other “messenger” particles that are distinguished from “fermions”, the particles of matter.

At superconducting temperatures around a few degrees Kelvin (just above absolute zero) electrons bond to each other to form pairs of electrons acting as a single particle while under superconducting temperatures. These two massive electrons act together as a Cooper pair boson because their half integer spins (electrons are fermions with half spins) are added to become a whole integer spin, which is the definition of a boson.

In an experimental configuration, such as Dr. Tajmar employed at AIT/ARC, the superconductor is rotated as a ring. During acceleration the coupling effect is equivalent to the addition of a magnetic field. Slow the acceleration until the ring is rotating at a steady speed and the gravity-like fieldcollapses. Similarly, when the temperature of the super conducting material being rotated is raised well above the critical temperature for superconductivity, the Cooper pairs decay and the field collapses. It was shown later that the field collapse occurs slightly above the critical temperature rather than at the critical temperature, providing a subtle clue that coupling to Cooper pairs is not the only mechanism involved. Tajmar and his team were later to drop the theoretical coupling to Cooper pairs as the full explanation for their observed effect.

Once aware of Tajmar’s experimental results at AIT/ARC, Dröscher and Hauser plugged values for the massive Cooper pair boson into their equations. They found that their theory, published almost two years in advance of Tajmar’s team, accurately predicted the AIT/ARC experimental results. Dröscher and Hauser became immediate advocates for employing coupling to massive bosons through rotating superconductors as it provides much lower technical requirements than the massive magnetic fields needed for fermion coupling. Soon, they would give additional support to Tajmar’s findings of an alternative explanation for the data from GP-B.

**TWO TYPES OF MATTER**

EHT merges general relativity with quantum theory under a model organized through the geometry of spacetime. In this model, as with Heim Theory, matter does not merely move through the geometry of spacetime but is a construct of spacetime.

In EHT all particles can be described mathematically as the product of subspaces. That is, they can mathematically undergo factorization and be broken down into their constituent subspaces. In the same manner that the number 9 factors into 3×3, and the polynomial x2–9 factors into (x – 3)(x + 3), the photon factors into a combination of three subspaces: T^{1} x S^{2} x I^{2}. A photon becomes a gravitophoton when the hermetry form H2 (photon) converts via an intermediary form into the hermetry form H^{9} (gravitophoton). Again, hermetry forms are denoted by a subscript H_{n} in contrast to subspaces which are denoted by a superscript, e.g. R^{n}.

An eight dimensional internal symmetry space, termed Heim space, comprising four subspaces, H^{8}, is utilized that gives rise to 16 so called Hermetry forms, which denote physically meaningful metric subtensors derived from the general poly-metric tensor.

**BREAKING SYMMETRY**

In their 2009 paper to the AIAA , Dröscher and Hauser suggest that the mechanism specific to gravity-like fields is not one of the above mentioned mechanisms but one unique to creating virtual “charged particles of imaginary mass from which the final gravitational field has to be produced.” They refer to this unique symmetry breaking as “gravitomagnetic symmetry breaking” or “GSB.” Symmetry breaking is an important concept in physics. Steven Weinberg proposed his model of unification of electromagnetism and of nuclear weak forces (electro-weak), with the masses of the force-carriers of the weak part of the interaction being explained by spontaneous symmetry breaking. His work resulted in receiving the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics.

GSB has three salient characteristics. First, it is controlled by temperature such that when a critical temperature (Tc) is reached it results in a gravitomagnetic field being produced. Second, GSB is associated with the formation of virtual electrons, _{e}I,and virtual protons, _{p}I. The _{e}I (I for imaginary) exist as free imaginary electron gas, and the pI exist in the nucleus within a material’s crystal lattice structure. Third, the macroscopic effect is an extreme gravitomagnetic (gravity-like) field produced by gravitophotons.

However, a photon cannot directly convert to become a non-ordinary matter gravitophoton. It has to go through steps when the conditions for GSB permit. Note that there are two new versions of photons represented in H_{11}. There is γ(gamma) which is the ordinary(H_{11}) photon for ordinary matter, the new photon γIR that conveys the interaction between charged imaginary and real particles, and the new photon γI which is responsible for the interaction between charged imaginary particles. Therefore a photon γ will convert to a γIR photon capable of interacting with imaginary and real particles, which in turn will convert to a γI photon capable of interacting with imaginary particles.

When the photon completes this chain of conversions it then enters one of two different mechanisms represented by channels. In one channel it will result in a neutral gravitophoton

(ν^{01} _{gp}) which in turn decays into an attractive gravitophoton (ν^{+} _{gp}) and a repulsive gravitophoton (ν_{gp}). Both the resultant attractive and repulsive gravitophotons produce the gravity-like gravitomagnetic field B_{gp} (B indicates a field).

**CONNECTIONS to MOND**

A relatively new prediction of EHT is an underlying mechanism for MOND. The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis suggests that Newtonian gravity is changed for small accelerations. It implies that the relation between the Newtonian gravitational force and acceleration differs from Newton’s second law for very weak accelerations, which is typical for large scale structures like galaxies.

In their paper “On the Reality of Gravity-Like Fields” presented during the 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit , Dröscher and Hause attempted to explain the physics of MOND employing the novel physical concepts of EHT. They state that,

*“The laws of Newton and also the GR of Einstein are applicable only to commonplace gravitational interaction. As soon as experimental situations are encountered where NOM [non-ordinary matter composed of virtual particles] is involved or interaction between OM [ordinary matter] and NOM takes place, these laws cease to be applicable, and deviations from the dynamical laws of Newton (Einstein) should be expected. “*

*“As cosmological data show, there should be three types of matter in the Universe: ordinary matter m _{g}, dark matter m_{DM} , and dark energy m_{DE} . Therefore, based on these grounds, one might tentatively assume that there are also three different types of gravitational forces: attractive ν_{g}, repulsive ν_{q}, and attractive-repulsive associated with the so called gravitophoton, via the decay mode ν_{gp} → ν_{g} +ν_{q}, responsible for the attractive interaction between dark and Newtonian matter. “*

They propose that the interaction of dark energy with visible matter inside the galaxy and the interaction with dark matter in the galactic halo account for the modification of the gravitation law observed in MOND studies.

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