I am pleased to announce that Part III of the paper by Hauser and Dröscher has been accepted for publication by the Max-Planck Journal Zeitschrift für Naturforschung A (ZNA). The title is “GRAVITY BEYOND EINSTEIN? PART II: FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES, NUMBER SYSTEMS, NOVEL GROUPS, DARK ENERGY AND DARK MATTER, MOND”. A quick overview of the scope of the article may be found here:
I’ve been privileged to edit all three parts of the series for readability and consistency since 2017 and several other articles by the authors over the past decade. Here is a synopsis of the article, which took the authors 30 months to develop:
As a series, the articles attempt to unravel the contradictory results of experiments to determine the neutron lifetime, the contradiction between the predictions of particle physics and experiments concerning the nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy particles.
The novel concepts of both negative and hypercomplex matter (giving rise to the concept of matter flavor) are introduced, replacing the field of real numbers by hypercomplex numbers, which replaces the concept of extra spatial dimensions and which questions the concept of supersymmetry. Hypercomplex matter has a most dramatic consequence because it requires the existence of a second type of gravity, mediated by spin-1 bosons in accordance with the three other fundamental forces.
The authors suggest a dual spacetime, denoted by DdS1,3, in which the dark matter particles that are supposed to be of negative mass reside and therefore are undetectable in our spacetime.
The conversion of electromagnetic into gravity-like fields (as surmised by Faraday and Einstein) should be possible, but not in cosmological gravity, and thus these conversion fields are outside general relativity. In addition, the concept of hypercomplex mass in conjunction with magnetic monopoles emerging from spin ice materials is discussed that may provide the enabling technology for long-sought propellantless space propulsion. The resultant three different gravitational coupling constants predicted would also make possible higher admissible speeds of light at 10^5C and 10^10C.
Here are the section headings:
2. From Ordinal Numbers to Coupling Constants
3. Hypercomplex Matter from Hypercomplex Numbers
4. Contradictory Physical Experiments
5. MOND Hypothesis Revisited
6. Cosmological Riddles Revisited
7. Space Propulsion by Gravity-Like Fields
8. Conclusions and Technology Outlook for Gravity-Like Fields
The arguments put forth in this article keep in line with Parts I and II, emphasizing the presentation of physical concepts and experimental data. The authors insist on consistency with General Relativity as a model of the universe. Decades after the LHC, concepts of superstrings and higher real spatial dimensions have been starkly questioned by numerous independent experiments. No sign of the predicted Lightest Supersymmetric Particle nor top squark has been detected as of yet and the unfulfilled search for supersymmetric particles to explain the existence of dark matter suggests the lack of validity for these ideas. No evidence of new physics has been found despite novel, sophisticated analysis strategies by CERN’s Atlas collaboration.
If a theory contradicts experiments or cannot be tested, it s not a theory and no mathematical elegance is a replacement for measurable physical reality. Up to now, there does not exist a single experiment that has been able to show the tiniest deviation from Einstein’s predictions. On the contrary, there are several recent experiments that are clearly at odds with both the concept of supersymmetry and superstrings. The long sought unified field theory is as absent as it was at the time of Einstein, a century ago. It appears that string theory and supersymmetry were both false starts, never supported by any experimental evidence.
After the introduction, Section 2 presents an attempt to calculate some of the coupling constants from a set of ordinal numbers employing a numerical calculation scheme, possibly demonstrating a close connection between numbers and physics. The authors claim that the gravitational coupling constants for Newtonian theory GN and Einstein’s theory GE are very slightly different, because in Einstein’s theory spacetime is a dynamic field and any particle moving through the spacetime lattice causes a tiny gravitational interaction with the spacetime grid, that is, GE > GN .
Section 3 discusses the immediate consequences of hypercomplex numbers to physics and shows how this idea leads to so-called hypercomplex matter that substantially extends the current concept of matter and naturally leads to additional particles. Hypercomplex matter requires the existence of a second type of gravity, mediated by spin-1 bosons and is instrumental in the generation of strong gravity-like fields that are outside of (yet not inconsistent with) GR. The theory comprising hypercompex matter is termed Extended Heim Theory (EHT) as a nod to Burkhard Heim who posited the idea of internal gauge space in the 1950s in order to construct a polymetric tensor. However, EHT relies on none of the mathematics of Heim Theory.
Section 4 introduces the concept of “matter flavor” (analogous to quark flavor) and gravity-like fields outside of GR. As shown by E. G. Harris, any claims for production of gravity-like fields through rotating superconductors must be outside GR. The evaluation of experiments reporting conflicting results on the neutron lifetime are considered, with a resolution including the possibility that neutrons first decay into hypercomplex matter, then into a proton, electron and electron antineutrino and which may account for the discrepancies between methods to establish the neutron lifetime.
Section 5 reviews the MOND hypothesis, but despite numerical predictions of MOND being correct the observed acceleration can be described by the existence of two dark energy particles (attractive and repulsive) predicted by hypercomplex matter. The negative particles are attracted by normal matter and are concentrated in the galaxy’s halo, less so in the galaxy. The repulsive particles are repelled by the presence of the galactic matter, resulting in a polarization effect due to dark energy, while dark matter is not present inside galaxies.
Section 6 discusses GR and its difference from the other three forces in that it is mediated by spin-2 bosons that, according to theory, should be comprised of two gluons.
Section 7 discusses W. von Braun’s quest for space propulsion without fuel. B. Heim greatly influenced von Braun’s interest in propellentless propulsion and Heim was prominently mentioned in articles of the day. An outlook of the repercussions of the novel physical concepts on particle physics, cosmology, and technology is discussed.