Category Archives: Theory

Advances in the theory of Extended Heim Theory

New paper in International Review of Aerospace Engineering

This article, “Gravity-Like Fields New Paradigm for Propulsion Science” by Jochem Hauser and Walter Dröscher (actually published in March 2012), appeared in the journal: International Review of Aerospace Engineering – October 2011 (Vol. 4, N. 5), pp. 287-306.

The copyright was transferred to the journal, and the article needs to be directly obtained from the journal website The introduction of the paper is available here:

I encourage everyone to read the introduction. Drs. Hauser and Dröscher were again kind enough to mention my book in the Introduction of their article (p. 289).

PDF of presentation by Dr. Hauser

This was recently posted on the HPCC-Soace GmbH site:

On 15 Dec. 2011, Prof. J. Hauser gave an introduction to the Physics of Propulsion from Gravity-Like Fields (shortened version of this presentation can be downloaded here) at the Institut für Lufttransportsysteme (ILT) of the DLR in Hamburg-Harburg, Germany.

There is both substantial theoretical and experimental (Tajmar 2006-2011, Graham, and possibly Gravity Probe-B) evidence that extreme gravitomagnetic and gravity-like fields might exist, not predicted by any of the so called advanced physical theories. Thus, the current belief in the existence of exactly four physical forces might have to be extended, in particular, with regard to recent experiments.

For instance, concerning special relativity (CERN OPERA superluminal neutrino speed) as well as general relativity (rotational speed of stars in gas rich galaxies and dark matter, S.S. Mc Gaugh, Maryland). Also, the so called physics beyond the standard model of particle physics like supersymmetry, string theory with 10 or 11 dimensions, multiverse etc. might not reflect physical reality, since the Large Hadron Collider, except for the possibility of a Higgs boson at about 125 GeV, has not found any new particles up to 600 GeV.

Furthermore, the ESA Integral satellite measurements invalidate predictions from quantum gravity. In addition, the computer experiments by Loll, Ambjorn et al. require a repulsive gravitational force (in form of Einstein’s cosmological constant) for a four-dimensional spacetime to evolve and seem to favor a de Sitter topology. Last but not least, the question of the speed of gravity does not appear to have been settled (van Flandern 1998, Rowlands 2007 etc.).

In conclusion, there is evidence that gravity is more than simple Newtonian gravitation, and perhaps attractive and repulsive gravitational forces exist. It is possible that an interaction between gravitation and electromagnetism at cryogenic temperatures occurs, as indicated in recent gravitomagnetic experiments. So far, a set of ten experiments was identified that have the potential to lead to novel physics not covered by mainstream theoretical concepts. As a result of these experiments, novel particles and fields might be required in conjunction with different types of matter, leading to new technologies in (space) transportation and direct energy generation.

Another theory of gravitational dipoles from the vacuum

In August a study by CERN physicist Draga Slavkov Hajdukovic suggested that dark matter may be an “illusion” caused by the quantum vacuum. Currently mainstream physics assumes there is only a positive gravitational charge. Hajdukovic suggests that if matter and antimatter are gravitationally repulsive, then it would mean that the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs that exist for a limited time in the quantum vacuum are gravitational dipoles.

In the most recent study described, he demonstrates the credibility of this idea by showing that the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum can explain four cosmological observations. It has revealed the surprising possibility that the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum can produce phenomena usually attributed to dark matter.

“I would say a theory in the early stage,” he told “Thousands of scientists work on the development of the cold dark matter (CDM) theory and the theories of modified gravity (MOND); I am working alone in this third direction.

Well, not quite alone. Hauser and Droescher’s earliest papers on EHT in 2004 proposed using the quantum vacuum as a means for symmetry breaking. This would lead to the breaking of a photon into an attractive and repulsive gravitophoton pair that creates a gravitational dipole.

Recent entrys from PhysForum on Burkhard Heim’s Particle Structure Theory

Here are my postings since May in the PhysForum Science, Physics and Technology Discussion Forums:

Also here are recent papers by Hauser, peer reviewed for conferences:

The AIAA paper:

And another recent offering:
The AIAA paper is short on pictures and long on text.

On an alternative explanation for Tajmar’s experimental results –

My reply 7-27-2011:
I noted a few days ago that M.E. McCulloch posted a second paper ascribing the Tajmar Effect to a Hubble-scale Casimir Effect. See

Now it’s been picked up in an article in PhysOrg. I noted in my book that Tajmar thinks quantized inertia a better explanation for his effect than EHT. Now McCulloch hopes Tajmar’s group will test the theory with a rotating superconductor 0.01% the mass of the original ring Tajmar and deMatos experimented with.

Unanswered questions from me include that Tajmar et al did not find the effect for rotating Type 2 superconductors. Why should such supercooled materials not elicit a quantized inertia effect? Also, MiHsC is posited as an explanation for the Pioneer effect, even though less complex and equally plausible mechanisms have claimed their own explanations for that effect.

Very interesting nonetheless.

On lack of a Higgs particle –

djolds1: IIRC, EHT explicitly posits a Higgs mechanism. Looks like particle physicists are finally giving up the ghost on that, and by extension the entire Standard Model.

My reply 8-28-2011:
The lack of a discovery of a singular Higgs particle of ordinary mattery by the LHC is actually good news for EHT.

In their paper “Gravitational Field Propulsion” (AIAA 2009-5069) Hauser and Dröscher state, “Any admissible subspace combination needs S2 or I2 coordinates to be present in order to realize physical events in our spacetime. The only exception is the Hermetry form H16 for the Higgs field.”

In their late 2009 paper “Emerging physics for novel field propulsion science” they expand their description that EHT’s three R subspaces deliver, “15 fundamental groups of particles… of gravitational or non-gravitational nature, while the O(2, q) 2 O(2, q) stands for the 6 Higgs and 6 anti-Higgs bosons, responsible for all types of charges that fundamental particles can possess. It is believed that all particles of OM or NOM… interact with its respective Higgs particle and gain charge (e.g mass or electric charge etc.), but their inertia (energy) should come from group O(1, q) , which denotes a special Hermetry form, H16 from subspace T1.”

OM stands for ordinary matter. NOM or Non-Ordinary Matter are particles of imaginary mass that should occur “as virtual particles, which means that they are not present (do not occur) in the initial and final states of a reaction, but act in the intermediate steps.”

In “Coupled Gravitational Fields A New Paradigm for Propulsion Science” (AIAA2010-021-NFF) they clarify that “there are three degenerated Hermetry forms that describe partial forms occurring in NOM, namely the families of imaginary messenger particles, i.e. photon, gluon, and dark matter… Hermetry form 16 is reserved for the inertia field, which is some kind of Higgs field pervading the whole Universe” They continue, “Imaginary particles are formed via the Higgs mechanism, for instance, as described by M. Kaku, (Kaku, M.: Quantum Field Theory, Oxford, 1993. Chap.10.).

So EHT postulates a total of six Higgs and anti-Higgs fields. These 12 Higgs bosons are transitory particles of imaginary mass. It is the interaction between fundamental particles and the Higgs mechanism that imparts charge and mass to them. EHT does not predict a singular Higgs boson of ordinary matter (OM), which has been the focus of the LHC’s search.

On Reed’s analysis:

gocrew: It’s hard to get excited about Heim Theory after Reed’s analysis. The only reason to pursue it was some of the possibilities it offered, which now seem to have been, well, I’ll not say fraudulent, just wrong. In a very suspicious way.

Without the predictions of mass, there really is little to get excited about, little to make us think he was on to something.

My reply 11-5-2011:
I wouldn’t be so quick to dismiss that Heim was “on to something.” Even though my understanding of the physics is limited, I do believe that Dr. Reed’s analysis of the shortcomings of Heim’s original theory is correct. However, I don’t think Reed’s conclusions should be applied by others to Dr. Hauser’s work in Extended Heim Theory.

In discussions with Hauser, it was pointed out to me that the idea of how to construct a poly-metric tensor was of much greater importance than Heim’s actual derivation. As applied to their (Hauser and Dröscher’s) eight-dimensional gauge space extension of Heim Theory, it seems to give a more complete and correct picture than Heim’s six-dimensional approach. The basic ideas of physics in Heim’s books are essential, but provide only a starting point. All of the formulas have to be derived anew, which is what EHT has accomplished.

Hauser and Dröscher have already pointed out in their papers that Heim’s mass spectrum analysis must at least be incomplete, simply because of his use of six-dimensional space. It was also pointed out to me that the new formulations in EHT did reveal additional errors in Heim’s math and that Reed’s correct analysis of Heim’s wrong spherical Laplacian had already been taken into consideration by EHT’s formulations.

gocrew: I have read that EHT is very separate from Heim Theory. However, does EHT have anything to get excited about? The possibility of deriving mass was exciting. Now, all EHT has, unless I am mistaken, is the possibility of a single experiment that has other explanations.

I’m not trying to put the last nail in the coffin. All I’m saying is I don’t see much reason to get excited anymore.

My reply 11-11-2011:
Like many others here, I’m all for a demo levitating a Hummer, but until that day there are some interesting new leads from disproving older theories… and from new ones… that improve EHT’s position among other “outlier” theories. And other refinements (read his last paper AIAA2011-6042) that give multiple ways to test its predictions:

1. If the LHC does not find a massive Higgs boson, that would give more weight to EHT since it would put the Standard Model into greater question and EHT would be there (among many others) to fill the gap. EHT predicts several less massive Higgs and anti-Higgs particles.

2. Verlinde’s holographic theory makes information and the organization of structures key to understanding space-time. You may have seen this theory referenced in recent episodes of PBS’s NOVA. Alternatively, holographic theory mirrors EHT’s four subspaces representing the formation of information structures (I2) and organizational structures (S2).

3. Hauser mentioned in his last paper that if physical experiments can be set up that lead to a conversion from photons into gravitophotons, a coupling between electromagnetism and gravitation would be established. Hyperbolic metamaterials have created electromagnetic “event horizons”, which are analogous to gravitational black holes. I would like to see if gravitomagnetic predictions can be represented analogously in the laboratory by employing metamaterials.

4. If symmetry breaking as the underlying cause of producing gravitophotons is real, then one outcome should be the production of a new real particle with lower ground state that should be detectable… if someone is looking for it.

On mention of Dr. Tajmar’s new publication, “Evaluation of enhanced frame-dragging in the vicinity of a rotating niobium superconductor, liquid helium and a helium superfluid” doi:10.1088/0953-2048/24/12/125011 contradciting earlier findings:

Mindrust: I wonder how gdaigle is reacting to this. If I remember correctly, he made a blog dedicated to Tajmar’s discovery in 2006.

djolds1: Greg recently wrote a book on the subject. My guess would be… sadly.

My reply 11-16-2011:
Disappointed, but not sad.

My blog has followed the theory of EHT as well as the findings of Dr. Tajmar, but has always had as its main focus the design implications of manipulating gravity-like fields.

I am still reviewing Dr. Tajmar’s paper for its full impact on his nine previously published papers on the topic. Determining exactly why he got his previous results at AIT is as interesting to me as his report of no significant results achieved with his new apparatus at KAIST.

Dr. Tajmar’s configurations for his earlier experiments were never going to produce the much stronger and axially propulsive field effects that Dr. Hauser envisioned, but they did provide a dataset with fewer alternative explanations than Gravity Probe B and the other anomalies that give weight to EHT.

Certainly this puts into question the bosonic pathway for EHT, but not the fermonic (really strong magnets) pathway originally posited by Hauser and Droescher. I am less clear about the impact of this newest study on Hauser’s proposed mechanism for gravitomagnetic fields, which is symmetry breaking rather than Cooper-pair coupling.

As for me, I’m planning to present a slideshow tomorrow on my book to fellow faculty members and will certainly mention Dr. Tajmar’s most recent findings… disappointing or not, it’s all part of the discovery process.

Pioneer Anomaly Solution Undercuts MOND, MiHsC but not EHT

For those not in the know, MIT’s Technology Review reports that a new computer model of the way heat is emitted by various parts of the Pioneer spacecraft and reflected off others, finally solves one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics. By using a computer modeling technique called Phong shading to work out exactly how the emitted heat from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is reflected and in which direction it ends up traveling, it undercuts support for two theories of modified gravity and inertia that had relied upon “new physics” to explain the anomaly.

These two theories, MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) and MiHsC (Modified Inertia due to a Hubble-scale Casimir effect) have employed data from the Pioneer spacecraft to give weight to their theories of how gravity (or inertia) might change over long distances.

In MOND, gravity changes are described as an alternative explanation for what is commonly known as dark matter. If the gravitational constant changes with distance there is no requirement for additional matter.

Currently MiHsC is the theory held by Dr. Martin Tajmar of KAIST as the most likely candidate to describe his dipolar gravity effects discovered at ARC/AIT and announced in 2006. But Tajmar’s results are also cited by Drs. Hauser and Droescher as experimental proof of EHT (Extended Heim Theory) which also predicts previously undetected massive particles (though not WIMPS) as the basis for dark matter without need for the changes in gravity due to distances (albeit gravity is modified in other manners).

With this new finding MOND’s explanation for dark matter becomes less likely, and the support for MiHsC also fades, though MiHsC also sites flyby anomalies as evidence supporting their hypothesis. This gives EHT a more preferred (though certainly not proven) position to explain both Tajmar’s findings and dark matter.

However, EHT still remains an outlier theory and additional experimentation must be completed to secure its position as an explanation for dark matter, dark energy and the complete view of gravity.

MIT article here:
ArXIV article here:


Gravity 2.0 was mentioned at the 2011 SPESIF Conference held March 15-17 at the University of Maryland. The presenter, Dr. Jochem Hauser, was presenting a paper for the American Institute of Physics on Extended Heim Theory (the physics focus of my book) and has been very generous in his time to review my book before publication.  The conference was organized in cooperation with the the American Astronautical Society (AAS), the “premier independent scientific and technical group in the United States exclusively dedicated to the advancement of space science and exploration.”

Dr. Hauser is a Professor of High Performance Computing in Suderburg, Germany. In 2007 he was a Visiting Scientist at the Institute of Mechanics at the Technical University of Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, teaching plasma physics and performing research in advanced space propulsion through gravitomagnetic fields.

Other areas of research interest include modern Riemann solvers for computational fluid dynamics and electrodynamics, heat flux and aerodynamic control of space vehicles using magnetic and time dependent electric fields.

He is also an Advanced Space Propulsion Consultant in the field of aerodynamic simulation and high-performance computing for the European Union and the European Space Agency, and from 1988-1992 headed the Aerothermodynamics Section at the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency in Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

The book was also reviewed by Dr. Martin Tajmar, formerly a professor of micropropulsion physics in Austria and now at KAIST (Korea’s Institute of Science and Technology).  Drs. Tajmar and de Matos did the original experiments at ARC/AIT (the largest research institute in Austria) demonstrating a dipolar (attractive and repulsive) gravitomagnetic-like field in the laboratory that was as strong as the naturally occurring field of a white dwarf star – and with a strength 18 orders of magnitude larger than predicted by general relativity.

You can see the presentation below. Click the red, then the green play buttons. The citation of the book appears right away and it completed within the first three minutes of Dr. Hauser’s presentation.

Emerging Physics – Part 2

Ordinary and Non-Ordinary Matter, Imaginary Matter and Space Drives – Part 2 of Emerging Physics

In the paper “Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion Science”, Drs. Jochem Hauser and co-author Walter Dröscher delve deeper into their descriptions of ordinary and non-ordinary matter.

In Extended Heim Theory (EHT) Ordinary Matter (OM) describes all messenger particles (gauge bosons) including the graviton, photon, vector bosons and gluons as well as leptons and quarks. Non-Ordinary Matter (NOM) describes virtual particles of imaginary matter that do not occur in the initial and final states of a reaction. Imaginary matter is not a new type of matter. These particles occur as interim states and are possibly catalysts allowing novel interactions, such as the decay of a neutral gravitophoton to a graviton/quintessence pair or to a ± gravitophoton pair.

In this model dark matter may be composed of a new class of particles, the neutral leptons (fermions). Neutral leptons are the only class of NOM that exist as real particles rather than imagery particles. The masses of neutral leptons are close to those of their charged counterparts and much less than those of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPS).

Some predictions of EHT unexpectedly align with new theories of physics put forward only in the past year. As mentioned previously, Dr. Erik Verlinde expanded on the ideas of Dr. Ted Jacobson that gravity is an emergent quality of space dependent upon the structured “holographic” information it contains. Under this view gravity may also be seen as a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics.

Similarly, EHT posits that four subspaces representing the formation of organizational structures (S2 negative entropy) and information structures (I2 entropy) make up the 16 different forms of hermetry, three of which define particles whose fields in combination are recognized as gravity.

Recently the DØ Experiment at Fermi Labs ( reported evidence for five types of Higgs particle (two Higgs doublets of four with some particles interpreted as W and Z bosons), while the Standard Model allows for only a single Higgs doublet. This evidence more closely aligns with the 6 Higgs bosons of ordinary matter (in addition to the 6 Higgs bosons of non-ordinary imaginary matter) predicted by EHT and outlined in Hauser-Dröscher’s recent paper.

Finally, the authors bring their discussion back to the implications for space propulsion. When a space vehicle is in the presence of the decay of photons to gravitons and quintessence particles, the gravitons are absorbed by the space vehicle while the quintessence particles are absorbed by the surrounding spacetime, leading to its expansion. Total momentum is conserved though the repulsive force of the quintessence and results in the expansion of the Universe (dark energy).

In the case of decay into non-neutral gravitophotons the negative gravitophotons act on the spacecraft and the positive gravitophotons act on spacetime such that total momentum is conserved. As long as the experimental conditions for the production of gravitophotons along with their respective decay are maintained, the proper acceleration field will be generated.

An experimental setup utilizing a disk rotating directly above a superconducting solenoid should be able to lift itself from the surface of the Earth. The technology required to meet the experimental requirements are currently within reach.

New D&H paper on Gravitational Field Propulsion… a must read

Walter Dröscher and Jochem Hauser have published a new paper for the 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit and Dr. Hauser presented it last month in Denver, Colorado.

The title is “Gravitational Field Propulsion” and it is accessible at: . Be sure to read the corrections here:

It is to date the most comprehensive and complete overview of Extended Heim Theory and includes several sections that are either completely new or expand upon areas only mentioned before in passing. It also ties current EHT to their prior award-winning AIAA paper on subliminal space travel. This is a must read.

The paper clearly recounts the experiments of Tajmar, et al. and does an in-depth analysis vis-a-vis EHT, Dr. Tajmar having given D&H access to his data. The paper also presents a very clear picture of the novel physics required by EHT and demonstrated in Tajmar’s experiments for ESA and ARC.

Items of particular note include:

1) Non-Ordinary Matter (NOM): Virtual particles with imaginary mass (but real charge) that lead to novel groups including graivtophotons and quintessence particles. In EHT, dark matter is composed of a new class of particles, the NOM neutral leptons (fermions, though not neutrinos), but these are not WIMPS (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) and have roughly the same inertial mass as electrons.

2) During spontaneous symmetry breaking similar to that of superconductors or ferromagnets, symmetry is regained by generation of NOMs which are subsequently converted into gravitophotons. This unique symmetry breaking for gravitational fields is termed “gravitomagnetic symmetry breaking” (GSB), which is associated with the formation of virtual electrons and protons.

3) A clear step-wise description of the Production mechanism for Imaginary Matter (PIM).

4) Describes in detail the experimental basis for gravitational fields in setups by Tajmar et al. and Graham as well as G-PB. Also, a parsing of the three different types of Gravitational Experiments discerned: GE1: gravitomagnetic twisting of spacetime; GE2: gravity-like acceleration; GE3: the long-proposed vertical gravity-like acceleration field for GME2.

5) A clear comparison of the two coupling mechanisms: fermion and boson.

6) A description of the physical processes in setups covering rotation of the Nb-ring, rotation of the Nb-ring plus Al sample holder (and liquid He), Al sample holder alone, and the conversion from an electromagnetic to gravitomagnetic field.

7) Finally, a specification list for GME2:
– a mass placed above the rotating disk of 3.15 x 10^3 kg
– rotation speed of 200 m/s
– coil of 1 m diameter with 2,500 turns and current of 8 A
– cross sectional area of coil at about 2.5 x 10^-2 m^2
– a total spacecraft mass is assumed to be 150 x 10^3 kg (165 short tons)
– generation of a force of 1.98 x 10^6N (about 2.02 x 10^5 kg or 222 short tons)

These figures came with a reference to a forthcoming review article to recompute these numbers.

I can’t help but think that this grand restatement of EHT, Tajmar’s experiments, G-PB, and references to the first AIAA article on space travel through parallel space is a prelude to a groundbreaking paper reporting on the experimental results of GME2.

Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion

Last month Dr. Jochem Häuser gave his talk at the Aerospace Museum of California on McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The topic of his talk was “Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion”. A full version of his supporting paper was co-authored with Dr. Walter Dröscher.

The paper reviews their novel concepts that might lead to advanced space propulsion technology based on gravitational-like force fields. In it they analyze the latest gravitomagnetic experiments performed at ARC Seibersdorf. They also discuss their re-interpretation of the general symmetry breaking mechanism leading to virtual particles of imaginary mass, which in turn, should be responsible for the conversion of electromagnetic into gravitational energy. They then go on to describe a novel experiment for the generation of a gravity-like field that could serve directly as a propulsion principle.

Largely this paper is a refined and succinct restatement of their current position with regards to Extended Heim Theory (EHT) and concludes with how best to advance the state of gravity-field like research and application. They state that, “…gravity-like fields most likely would lead to novel technologies in the general field of transportation, and thus should be of major interest to the public and, in particular, to industry. In addition, these fields might also be usable in energy generation.”

Also of interest is the mention of a shield effect by steel and multi-layer insulation (of the type used in spacecraft) that is predicted by EHT. One would surmise that the use of thin-layer materials such as MLI could then be employed to shield the effect selectively, producing a more easily manipulated and directed field.

Finally there is this mention, “Of even more practical importance would be the aspect of energy conversion from direct interaction between electromagnetism and gravitation or from employing gravity-like fields in nuclear fusion, for instance, in magnetic mirrors.”

In that one statement lies the hint that their work continues in the exploration of deriving energy directly from the interplay of magnetic and gravity-like fields. This gives an indication that one or both are still pursuing a patent to produce a source of clean energy (see this entry).

In the past I have noted that a focused gravity-like field could be employed to separate materials much like an ultracentrifuge. I have also noted how this might have dire implications for nuclear proliferation if employed in the separation of transuranic materials. But Drs. Häuser and Dröscher extend the potential more benevolently by suggesting that gravity-like fields might be employed to achieve hot nuclear fusion and thus bring this almost unlimited energy technology closer to realization.

Hot fusion from application of gravity-like fields? Theirs is a wonderfully ambitious prognostication.

Passive Manipulation of Gravito-Photons with Metamaterials?

In H.G. Wells’ novel The First Men in the Moon a scientist discovers “cavorite”, a mineral impervious to gravity that can also shield other materials from its effects. The search for materials with the ability to modify gravity have long been considered science fiction. But recently a paper by Minter, Wegter-McNelly and Chiao suggested that hypothesized High Frequency Gravity Waves (HFGWs) might be able to be reflected like a mirror by thin superconducting films when Cooper pairs are in motion.

Whether this will be the case is uncertain and Chiao has had some setbacks with his “gravity-radio” experiments in 2003, but of greater interest to myself is not whether any passive material may be able to interact with gravity waves or gravitons to redirect their paths, but whether there are materials that would be able to interact with gravito-photons, the hypothesized particles in Extended Heim Theory.

My candidate would be metamaterials.

Metamaterials have been modeled to manipulate photons to create invisibility cloaks in a manner analogous to the warping of space by gravity. Researchers such as Ulf Leonhardt of the University of St. Andrews, John Pendry of Imperial College London and Dr Guenneau, at the University of Liverpools’s Department of Mathematical Science are just a few of the theoreticians that have made clear the potential of metamaterials.

They have also shown how metamaterials can mimic phenomena that have been associated with manipulations of space-time. Dr. Guenneau, explains. “Using this new computer model we can prove that light can bend around an object under a cloak and is not diffracted by the object. This happens because the metamaterial that makes up the cloak stretches the metrics of space, in a similar way to what heavy planets and stars do for the metrics of space-time in Einstein’s general relativity theory.

Ulf Leonhardt of the University of St Andrews in the UK working independently of John Pendry of Imperial College London, says, “This research shows how much electromagnetic or optical instruments can do… Interestingly, the new calculations are inspired by the geometry of curved space — a discipline that is normally in the firm hands of researchers in general relativity.”

There was also an article and news release on the creation of a fiber-optical analogue of the event horizon of a black hole. It simulated a gravitational phenomenon through the use of photonic-crystal fibers. A description of other instances of this effect is here:

A paper published in the March 2009 issue of Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Review, “Cloaking Devices, Electromagnetic Wormholes, and Transformation Optics,” presents an overview of the theoretical developments in cloaking from a mathematical perspective. The cloaking version of a wormhole allows for an invisible tunnel between two points in space through which electromagnetic waves can be transmitted.

With such a close relationship between metamaterials and optical analogues of gravity events, and the generation of gravito-photons through gravito-magnetic interactions, perhaps one day metamaterials will be able to be designed to passively interact with propulsion or standing fields produced by gravito-photons. This might include the ability to pass through them, reflect them, or shape them to form gravito-lenses on a small scale.