Monthly Archives: July 2014

Design factors for gravityships and gravitecture+

Until it becomes a discipline in its own right with its own set of best practices, gravity design will likely begin as an intersection of other design disciplines.  Other design disciplines may include:

Industrial/Product Design
Interface Design
Transportation Design
Urban Design
Experience Design
…and other non-design disciplines:
Social demography
Cultural studies
Sports kinesiology
…and likely several others.

The ebook Gravity 2.0 was primarily a resource for conveying the discovery of a potential route to gravity modification and a scoping document for areas of impact.

The following are design factors for gravityships and floating architecture (gravitecture+) to be considered by practitioners of gravity design.  The intersection with other design and non-design disciplines to address those factors will determine the range of considerations and skills to be developed by gravity designers.

For gravityships:

Control and display interfaces
• While under conditions of acceleration, deceleration
• While under conditions of weightlessness
• While body orientation to acceleration/deceleration is in the coronal, sagittal or transverse (axial) planes.

Regulatory parameters for flight
• FAA and ICAO craft types include hovercraft, fixed wing aircraft, rotorcraft, glider, lighter-than-air, powered parachute and weight-shift control but not gravityships.

Vertical Airspace
• Class G (uncontrolled, less than 1200 feet AGL)
• Class E (controlled, ground, <700 feet AGL, <1200 feet AGL)
• Visual Flight Rules vs Instrument Flight Rules with SATS

Flight Paths
• Use of flight corridors, flyways, roadways, waterways

• For pilots, passengers, flight controllers, maintenance

• Refining, processing and disposal of superconducting materials, disposal of reaction mass to be acted upon (e.g. lead), extraneous “gravity-like field” pollution

• Access to parking facilities
• Specialized parking structures

• Storage via Lithium-air or other storage systems

Vehicle to Grid
• Payment to owner when parked and providing excess power to electrical grid
• Payment to owner when parked and providing gravitational lift to structures

Traffic controls
• Navigational beacons at elevations, GPS guidance

• Shaping of windshields/cowlings/airfoils with gravity-like fields

• Vehicle to vehicle communications for navigation and networking
• Vehicle to ground communications using WiFi and cellular networks

Pilotless/smart vehicles
• Extensions of regulations pertaining to drones
• Use of “smart” vehicle technology for autonomous navigation

For gravitecture+ (floating residences):

Control and display interfaces
• While under conditions of acceleration, deceleration, ascent, decent

Taxation for structures not affixed
• Shadow tax (adumbration) as with floating homes
• Roaming fees
• “Slip” fees

Private rights vs real property rights
• Right to moor for extended periods of time
• Right to sunlight (“hikage kisei”) if gravitecture+ blocks sun
• Right to view if gravitecture+ blocks view
• Air rights  (without use of “transfer of development rights”)

• Mooring services
• Storage of water
• Generation/storage of electricity

Waste treatment
• Disposal of waste water and garbage
• Demographics

• Voter registration
• Determination of residency

Regulatory parameters for flight
• Those from FAA and ICAO (mentioned above)
• Right to light (large structures blocking light)
• Right to view (large structures blocking view)

Vertical Airspace
• Class G (uncontrolled, less than 1200 feet AGL)
• Class E (controlled, ground, <700 feet AGL, <1200 feet AGL)
• Visual Flight Rules vs Instrument Flight Rules with SATS

• First Freedom of the Air (freedom to land)
• Second Freedom of the Air (freedom to fly without landing)

Flight Paths
• Use of flight corridors, flyways, roadways, waterways

• For pilots, passengers, flight controllers, maintenance

• Refining, processing and disposal of superconducting materials, disposal of reaction mass to be acted upon (e.g. lead), “gravity-like field” pollution

• Storage via Lithium-air or other storage systems
• Generation via LENR
• Generation via azimuthal rotation (similar to homopolar motor but using Heim-Lorentz force rather than Lorentz force)

Land values
• Diminishing value of non-floating residential properties with the advent of gravitecture+ alternatives

EHT as a mechanism for MOND

EHT gives rises to six fundamental forces, three of them of gravitational nature, and thus could lead to a novel type of propulsion without propellant. The following are quotations from a 2012 paper by Droscher and Hauser. It suggests that one of the three gravitational forces acts upon spacetime and underlies the cosmological constant responsible for the expansion of the universe. It is postulated that negative dark energy (attractive field) is attracted to the matter inside of a galaxy and that its antiparticle (repulsive field) is repelled by the interior matter and collects in the galactic halo where dark matter resides. This makes it a candidate for the explanations behind MOND, a leading alternative to dark matter that has been found to accurately predict the speed of stars within dwarf galaxies.

On the Reality of Gravity-Like Fields
AIAA 2012-2491
48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit
29 July -1 August 2012, Atlanta, Georgia

“It is assumed that the dark energy is composed of both repulsive and attractive fields and only the combined action is perceptible in empty space. Inside galaxies, because of the large density of visible matter, the attractive field is neutralized and an additional gravitational interaction mediated in form of the MOND acceleration a0 has to be taken into account.”

“Since no dark matter seems to reside within galaxies (ESO observations, June 2012), but, on the other hand the deviation from Newton’s law has been experimentally verified by McGaugh (February 2011), only the interaction of dark energy with visible matter inside the galaxy and the interaction with dark matter in the galactic halo remain to account for this modification of the gravitation law. Since the MOND hypothesis seems to give the correct value, any derivation should reproduce this value. As the measurements by Reyes and also galactic gravitational lensing have shown, both visible and dark matter are subject to Newton’s gravitational law.”

“Moreover, since strong gravitational lensing is observed, galaxies must possess dark matter. Therefore, the physical mechanism for galactic halo formation has to be found, while, at the same time, the non-existence of dark matter inside galaxies must follow from the the same physical concept, and, finally, the correct value of the MOND acceleration needs to be produced. So far, no physical theory exists. Therefore, the attempt is undertaken to apply the novel concepts of EHT to try to solve this riddle.”

“According to Loll et al. the computer simulations from Causal Dynamical Triangulation (which is a Monte Carlo simulation of the path integral for the action of GR, or summation over universes) without cosmological constant Λ > 0 do not lead to a four-dimensional spacetime in the classical limit. In other words, a repulsive gravitational force is mandatory, and thus the assumption of the existence of dark energy is justified also by computer simulation.”

“It is known that within a galaxy, cosmic expansion does not take place. Instead, an additional acceleration field, a0, directed toward the center of the galaxy is present. Since dark matter cannot be present inside a galaxy, the existence of attractive dark energy is postulated, which according to EHT, would be represented by the antiparticle of the quintessence particle νq.”

“The question arises, how the large density of ordinary matter inside a galaxy – remember that dark matter cannot be present – does act on the mixture of positive and negative dark energy that is ubiquitous in the Cosmos? The result is known, namely that inside a galaxy an acceleration a0 = 1.2 × 10−10 m/s2 pointing toward the galactic center must be obtained. Obviously, it can only be caused from the presence of negative dark energy (attractive gravitation), residing inside the galaxy, which is attracted by the visible matter inside as well as the dark matter in the halo of the galaxy. Both types of dark energy, positive (repulsive) and negative (attractive) are present throughout the Universe, but in the current era | Λ |>| Λ+ |, and thus a resulting force leading to an expansion is acting on the space field.”

“However, as will be shown next, the effect of Λ+ (contracting spacetime, but being repulsive with regard to the matter inside the galaxy because of its negative energy) is neutralized inside a galaxy, and therefore inside the galaxy only the attractive gravitational effect of Λ on ordinary matter (both visible and dark) remains. The reason why the Λ+ is neutralized inside a galaxy, is due to the fact that a galaxy contains a large amount of ordinary matter, where visible matter is inside the galaxy and dark matter resides in the halo, with about 80% of the matter in the halo. To understand the qualitative physical mechanism of dark matter halo formation, consider a sphere filled with positive electric charges. It will repel particles arriving from outside the sphere that are of like charge, while attracting particles of negative electric charge. In the gravitational case, the νq particles are representing the cosmological Λ+ field and are repelled by the galactic matter, and thus are screened out. The νq particles, representing the Λ field are attracted by the galactic matter, and thus are collected mainly in the halo, where matter density is larger. Thus, a surplus of νq particles is collected in the halo and, to a lesser extent, inside the galaxy, resulting in an acceleration acting toward the center of the galaxy, which is known as the MOND acceleration, being prevalent for visible matter in the vicinity of the halo. In this way, dark energy in combination with the dark matter halo seems to be responsible for the observed MOND acceleration.”

[Formulas in the original document are not represented in this summary]

Locus of Design

This is an interactive exercise for understanding design as an intersection of domains representing social factors, functional capabilities and experiences. It was developed by former design professor Greg Daigle in 2006 and first appeared in Core77. It has also appeared in the ebook “Gravity 2.0.”

There are several design frameworks for describing the relationships between people and the products they use. “User-centered design” (UCD), “activity-centered design” and “experience design’ are leading models. This model was developed in 2006 and employs three overlapping domains, each with concentric rings of influence to establish the “locus of design.” In combination, all three domains address the social-functional-experiential basis for design decisions.

The Social Domain includes the user, the local cohorts (immediate family, co- workers, friends, neighbors with whom they interact) and wider social groups including extended family, long distance collaborators and society in general.

The Functional Domain includes how products “function.” This ranges from simple mechanisms or electronics, to systems of functions working together within the same product or used in conjunction with nearby products, to local and wide area networks of products connected non-physically or through the cloud.

The Experiential Domain is both temporal and perceptual and includes the “in-the-moment” experiences, but also those over time (often shared with others) and experiences which transform long-term behaviors for individuals, groups or society.








On the first screen users have the option to explore the different concentric circles of each domain to see what they represent.








In subsequent screens the user can select settings from each of the domains and see how the concentric domains move into place to represent the overlaps.  Users can also drag the concentric domains until they overlap and view the outcomes… or take an interactive quiz to show if you understand the concept fully.








The interactive version of the app for desktops was build with ZebraZapps.  See it below… (may take a full minute to load).

Be sure to click on the “Z” in the corner to see your viewing options to zoom to full screen.

The app is also available on Google Play for android devices: Locus of Design.

Explore how any design situation can be described as an overlapping set of three domains that determine the “locus” of design.

Terrestrial and space applications of gravity-like fields

This is a preprint of an article accepted for publication in a special issue of the Journal of Space Exploration, ©2014 Mehta Press: Terrestrial and space applications of gravity-like fields. Publication date Aug/Sept 2014.

ABSTRACT: Extended Heim Theory (EHT) suggests two additional gravity-like fundamental forces and proposes the possibility of propellant-less propulsion for space flight. If sufficiently safe and cost effective, technology spinoffs may prove to be disruptive for terrestrial applications. Applications based upon advancements in this field could have far- reaching implications for transportation, architecture, urban planning and industry. Coupled with promising distributed energy technologies of sufficiently high specific energy, the impact upon local economies, social systems and even representational democracies may be a challenge to future generations.